Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)

Committee Chair

Jim Palermo


The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if there was a significant difference in scores on the third-grade South Carolina Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) in reading and math between students who were academically redshirted and students who were not academically redshirted. This study also investigated whether gender has an impact on academic success between students within these two groups.

This research took place in a small, rural school district in the upstate region of South Carolina. There are approximately 2,900 students in the district. The participants in this study included students who participated in the South Carolina PASS test during their third-grade year. Within this group, the researcher looked at those students who were academically redshirted in kindergarten and compared them to those who were not redshirted in kindergarten. The researcher observed data from multiple years by looking at the third-grade scores from each year PASS has been given, 2009-2014. Eight hundred eighty-two students were included in the study. Of the 882 students, 41 were academically redshirted, while the remaining 841 students were not. There were a total of 436 males and 446 females. Of the 41 who were redshirted, 27 were male and 14 were female.

The methodology used in this research study included an independent-samples t test to determine whether the difference between the reading and math scores on the third-grade PASS between redshirted students and non-redshirted students was statistically significant. Also, a two-way ANOVA was conducted to determine if a statistically significant difference existed between the PASS scores of the redshirted and non-redshirted males and the redshirted and non-redshirted females.

When reviewing the results of the study, the research indicated that nonacademically redshirted students score significantly higher in reading and math than the academically redshirted students; however, when gender was factored in, there was not a statistically significant difference. Additionally, school entry status (academically redshirted students vs. nonacademically redshirted students) and birth month have a significant effect on reading scores; however, school entry status and birth month do not have a significant effect on math scores.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.