Journal of Counseling and Psychology


This study investigated the framing effect and examined whether disfluency reduces susceptibility to framing. Prior work has shown that when information is presented in a fluent manner individuals process the content quickly, however when it is presented in a disfluent hard-to-read manner more analytical processing systems are activated. The current study examined the impact of fluency and dual process theory on framing susceptibility. Participants completed three classic decision problems (Asian Disease Problem, School Dropout Prevention Problem, and Fatal Disease Problem) with answers written in a risk seeking or risk averse manner and the font manipulated. The framing effect was again observed for these decision problems, but importantly was reduced in the disfluent conditions, as well as for participants more likely to use System 2 processes. These results suggest that simple font manipulations can have a powerful effect on decision making.