Date of Award

Spring 2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)

Committee Chair

Benjamin Williams


The purpose of this study was to compile or detail alternative out-of-school suspension (OSS) strategies using a qualitative method. Within this study, I evaluated the overall thoughts and perceptions of stakeholders, including teachers, school staff, and administrators as it relates to the strategies being used in Title I elementary schools in a large urban district. The following terms or word combinations were searched: alternative, elementary school, decreasing, reducing, attendance, restorative practices, principal, assistant principal, perceptions, stakeholders, teachers, strategies, out-of-school suspension (OSS), elementary, urban school, multi-tiered system of support, restorative practices, positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS), and zero tolerance. After the collection of strategies and the evaluation of thoughts and perceptions of the school stakeholders, I comprised a comprehensive list of suggestions or alternative options for elementary school leaders in Title I schools in large urban school districts to use in place of or in addition to OSS. This research yielded information in the area of school discipline in Title I urban school settings. The strategies shared by school leaders can be used to help support leaders in similar settings.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License