Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)

First Advisor

Nicole Waters


Osteoporosis is a metabolic disorder characterized by the loss of bone mass, increased bone fragility, and the increased risk of fractures. Bone loss is accelerated when the diet is deficient in vitamin D and calcium. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that 57 million Americans are at risk for this disorder. The risk depends on the amount of bone mass achieved between ages 25-35 and how much bone loss occurs after that age. Bone loss increases after menopause. Lifestyle modifications needed include knowledge of vitamin D, calcium, and exercise recommendations.