Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Religion (MAR)

Committee Chair

Ron Williams


This paper attempts to test the hypothesis that the meaning of the term "Israel" actually was open to debate and that Paul was not the only one who defined "Israel" in such a way as to endorse a particular understanding of the term. This paper further examines whether there was literary precedence for Paul's use of Israel. These claims are examined how the use of "Israel" expanded during the relatively short period of time between the appearance of post-exilic Israelite literature and Paul's writings. This is accomplished by citing various examples of Jewish and Christian literature during this time period.