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The present study aimed to evaluate the differences in body composition, specifically body fat percentage (BF%), fat-free mass (FFM), and body mass index (BMI), across four forms of assessment. It was hypothesized that male subjects, on average, would display consistently lower BF% when compared to females across four body composition data collection methods, and results would be highly correlated between the four. The BOD POD acted as the present study’s gold standard due to it being one of the most accurate methods of assessing BF% (Collins et al., 1999). It was assumed that women would have a higher BF% than men on average. According to Robergs and Roberts (1997), a healthy range of body fat for women is 20% to 25%, and a healthy range of body fat for men is 10% to 15%. A BF% over 20% for men and 30% for women is considered an indication of obesity. Additionally, Akindele et al. (2016) suggested that as BMI increases there is a corresponding increase in the BF%. Females are more likely to report BF% higher than their BMI but this concept is flipped for males meaning they will report lower BF% than their BMI.

Publication Date

Spring 2021


Boiling Springs, NC


Medicine and Health Sciences | Movement and Mind-Body Therapies | Rehabilitation and Therapy | Sports Sciences

Gender Differences of Body Composition Across Four Different Forms of Assessment