Efficacy of a leadership approach may be highly dependent upon cultural factors, making additional research in foreign contexts necessary. A methodology was developed to investigate the relationship between Confucian values and leadership preferences. Responses on the Chinese Values Survey (CVS) were compared to those of the Vannsimpco Leadership Survey (VLS) for both Korean (N = 48) and American (N = 47) university respondents. Correlations for both groups revealed a link between Confucian values and hybrid leadership styles. Among Korean faculty, this link was even more pronounced, yielding significant correlations to autocratic-transformational (rs  = .513, p < .05), autocratic-transactional (rs  = .420, p < .05), democratic-transformational (rs  = .567, p < .001), and democratic-transactional (rs  = .482, p < .01) leadership. Results suggest that simple theoretical approaches to leadership do not address the complex interplay between autocratic (Li) and democratic (Ren and Yi) Confucian virtues.
Schenck, Andrew and Waddey, Merissa
"Examining the Impact of Confucian Values on Leadership Preferences,"
Journal of Organizational & Educational Leadership: Vol. 3
, Article 4.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.gardner-webb.edu/joel/vol3/iss1/4